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Compact Fluorometer for Long-term Monitoring of Photosynthesis

A MICRO-PAM system involves several light-weight chlorophyll fluorometers for field use. Being capable of multi-site monitoring of photosynthesis over weeks and months, the MICRO-PAM is tailored to study plant responses to environmental changes in nature and under controlled conditions. Due to its compact measuring heads, the MICRO-PAM is suited for smaller samples than those typically probed by the established MONITORING-PAM.

Originally, the MICRO-PAM has been developed to measure photosynthesis of lichens growing on rocks or in biological soil crusts. The actual field of application includes herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees. In addition to determining photosynthesis yield by the saturation pulse technique, the measuring heads record light intensity and temperature by external sensors, and humidity by an internal sensor.

  • Four MICRO-HEADs carrying out saturation pulse analysis with variegated leaves.

  • Adjusting signal levels of MICRO-PAM fluorometers of the Walz live monitoring station.

  • MICRO-HEAD. View through the leaf clip MICRO HEAD/BK.

  • MICRO-HEADs carrying out saturation pulse analysis with variegated leaves.

  • MICRO-HEADs measuring photosynthesis of ground-covering ivy (Hedera helix).

Outstanding Properties of the MICRO-PAM
  • Compact measuring heads
  • Energy-efficient design
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence plus PAR, temperature, and humidity
General Features MICRO-PAM

The measuring heads of a MICRO-PAM system are denoted as MICRO-HEAD/3B where the “3” specifies the diameter in mm of the light guide and the "B" stands for the blue color of measuring and actinic light.

The MICRO-HEAD/3B possesses a blue power LED with maximum emission at 465 nm and a full width at half maximum of 22 nm. The maximum actinic light intensity at sample level is 3000 μmol m-2 s-1, the maximum saturation pulse intensity is 8000 μmol m-2 s-1.

  • MICRO HEAD/3B. View on lower side of leaf clip (left) and on leaf clip (right).

  • Prototype of MICRO-HEAD in the Field.

  • MICRO-PAM Lightguide pointed to a conifer seedling.

The MICRO-HEAD/3B is equipped with a sample clip. A cosine-response PAR sensor is positioned parallel to the sample plane. A thermocouple touching the lower sample side measures temperature. Humidity is measured by a capacitive-type sensor located inside the fluorometer housing. On request, a special stand will be provided to mount the MICRO-HEAD/3B on solid surfaces.

MICRO-PAM systems can be operated in the ONLINE configuration in which up to four measuring heads can be connected via the MONI-IB4/LAN PC Interface Box to an USB port of a Windows computer running WinControl-3. In the OFFLINE configuration, measuring heads are connected directly or via the so-called MINI-HUB to a MONI-DA data acquisition system.

Comparing Monitoring Systems
Comparing Monitoring Systems
Measuring Head MICRO-HEAD/3B MONI-HEAD/485
Weight 96 g 205 g
Volume 189 cm3 365 cm3
PAR Sensor External Internal
Temperature Sensor External (Thermocouple) Internal
Humidity Sensor Internal Absent
Optical Pathway Fiber Lens
Weather Resistance Coating of electronic circuitry to protect against moisture Waterproof Housing
Underwater Version Not available Available
Power Consumption 3 W during SPmax 7 W during SPmax

Head office (Daegu City)

41256 대구광역시 동구 동대구로 495 (신천동) 삼양사빌딩 7층 Tel. 053-752-0454(0450) Fax. 053-752-0464 Email greenics@naver.com